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  • Writer's pictureMichael Charles

What are Patent Trolls? Everything you need to know

Updated: May 2

In the realm of intellectual property, the term "patent troll" has gained notoriety in recent years. But who exactly are these elusive figures, and what impact do they have on innovation and businesses? Let's delve into the world of patent trolls to uncover their nature and the challenges they pose.





Defining Patent Trolls:


Patent trolls, also known as non-practicing entities (NPEs) or patent assertion entities (PAEs), are entities that acquire patents with the sole purpose of enforcing them against alleged infringers for financial gain, rather than using the patents to develop or manufacture products. Essentially, they monetise patents through litigation or licensing agreements rather than creating tangible products or services.


Their Modus Operandi:


Patent trolls typically acquire patents, often of dubious quality or with broad claims, from bankrupt companies, inventors, or through patent auctions. They then target companies—often small to medium-sized businesses or startups—alleging infringement of these patents. Threatening legal action, they demand licensing fees or settlements, leveraging the high cost of litigation to pressure defendants into settling, regardless of the validity of the claims.


Impact on Innovation and Businesses:

The activities of patent trolls can stifle innovation and entrepreneurship in several ways. Firstly, they divert resources away from research, development, and business growth, as companies are forced to allocate funds for legal defence or licensing fees instead. This can be particularly burdensome for startups and small businesses with limited financial resources.


Moreover, the mere threat of patent litigation can deter innovation and investment, as companies may avoid developing new products or technologies out of fear of potential infringement claims. This chilling effect can hinder competition and technological progress, ultimately harming consumers and the economy as a whole.


Legal and Regulatory Responses:


Efforts to curb the activities of patent trolls have been underway for years, both through legal reforms and industry initiatives. These include measures such as patent reform legislation, which aims to address patent quality, litigation abuse, and fee-shifting provisions to deter frivolous lawsuits. Additionally, the creation of defensive patent pools and initiatives promoting patent transparency and prior art searching seek to mitigate the impact of patent trolls on innovation.


Patent trolls represent a complex challenge in the intellectual property landscape, posing threats to businesses, innovation, and economic growth. While legal and regulatory measures aim to address their harmful practices, combating patent trolling requires a multifaceted approach involving collaboration between policymakers, industry stakeholders, and the legal community. By raising awareness and implementing effective strategies, we can strive to foster an environment where innovation thrives, free from the shadow of patent trolls.


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